Главная>Учебники и самоучители 1-25 26-50 51-75>Беляева С.А., Паскевич Н.С., Попова Г. В. "Практикум по чтению текстов авиационной тематики"

Беляева С.А., Паскевич Н.С., Попова Г. В. "Практикум по чтению текстов авиационной тематики"

Здесь Вы сможете бесплатно прочитать книгу: Беляева С.А., Паскевич Н.С., Попова Г. В. "Практикум по чтению текстов авиационной тематики".

Описание: Данный практикум предназначен для студентов, приступающих к изучению профессионально-ориентированного авиационного языка. Все тексты и упражнения к ним направлены на развитие навыков чтения и понимания специальной литературы и документов ИКАО.

Практикум состоит из 2х частей.

Часть I включает тексты по общеавиационной тематике, лексические и грамматические упражнения к ним.

Часть II включает дополнительные тексты для чтения.

Содержание:

ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE AND AN INTERNATIONAL AVIATION LANGUAGE 3
FROM THE HISTORY OF AVIATION 7
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS 11
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICES (AIS) 15
WEATHER 18
AIRPORT 23
AIRCRAFT 26
SAFETY 30
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL 33
HUMAN FACTORS IN AVIATION 37

ПРАКТИКУМ по чтению текстов авиационной тематики (для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов по специальностям ЛЭ, ВН, ОВД, АНО)

ЧАСТЬ I

Предисловие
Данный практикум предназначен для студентов, приступающих к изучению профессионально-ориентированного авиационного языка. Все тексты и упражнения к ним направлены на развитие навыков чтения и понимания специальной литературы и документов ИКАО.
Практикум состоит из 2х частей.
Часть I включает тексты по общеавиационной тематике, лексические и грамматические упражнения к ним.
Часть II включает дополнительные тексты для чтения.

ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE AND AN INTERNATIONAL AVIATION LANGUAGE

English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, almost in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the XVII-th century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, the great growth of population in the United States together with massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries has given the English language its present standing in the world. Besides, basic characteristics of English also contribute to the situation that nowadays it is the most spread language on Earth. These characteristics are: simplicity of forms (very few endings); flexibility (the same word can operate as some different parts of speech); openness of vocabulary (English words are frequently admitted by other languages). At present English is the language of business, technology, sport and aviation.
There are four working languages in ICAO – English, French, Spanish and Russian. But all meetings, conferences and assemblies are conducted in English and then all materials are translated into other languages. For this purpose ICAO has a special “Language and Publications Branch” with four sections.
The most urgent problem in aviation is safety. The progress in safety is achieved by intensive efforts in various spheres – engineering sciences, meteorology, psychology, medicine, economics and “last but not least” the English language. Insufficient English language proficiency often results in accidents and incidents. For example, the worst disaster in aviation history occurred in 1977 when two Boeings 747 collided at Tenerife, Canary Islands. The crew of Pan American 747 missed or misunderstood taxi instructions requiring a turn off the active runway. At the same time KLM 747 initiated a shrouded take off on the opposite direction. The two aircraft met on the active runway, with heavy loss of lives.
Between 1976-2000 more than 1100 passengers and crews lost their lives in accidents in which language played a contributory role.
Concern over the role of language in airline accidents brought real actions. So in March 2003 ICAO adopted Amendments to ICAO Annexes 1, 6, 10 and 11. These Amendments make clear and extend language requirements. In addition, they contain new more strict requirements for language testing.
Additional standards in Annex 10 demand to adhere (=follow) more closely to standard phraseology in all air-ground exchanges and to use plain language when phraseology is not sufficient. Phraseology alone is unable to cover all of the potential situations, particularly (especially) in critical or emergency situations. Therefore the PELA (Proficiency in English Language) test examines use of both ATC phraseology and plain English.

EXERCISES
I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. When did the exporting of English begin?
2. In what spheres of life is English most widely used?
3. How many working languages are there in ICAO?
4. In what language are meetings, conferences and assemblies conducted in ICAO?
5. How is the progress in safety achieved?
6. Could you explain why English language is so important in solving safety problem?
7. What are ICAO real actions for improving English language proficiency?
8. Will you describe the Amendments to ICAO Annexes adopted in 2003?
9. What do additional standards demand?
10. Can phraseology alone cover all of the potential situation in the air?
11. What are the PELA test requirements now?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:
establish – establishment
special – specially – specialist – speciality – specialize – specialization
urgent – urgency
safe – unsafe – safely – safety
achieve – achievement – achievable
vary – various – variously – variety – variant – variable – variability
sufficient – sufficiently – sufficiency
collide – collision
critical – uncritical – critically – criticize – criticism
require – requirement – unrequired
oppose – opposite – opposition – oppositionist
add – addition – additional – additionally
act – active – actively – activate – activity – action
heavy – heavily – heaviness
contribute – contributory – contribution
lose – loser – loss
strict – strictly – strictness
cover – coverage – discover – discovery
real – really – realist – realistic – realism – reality

III. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Каково население этого района?
2. Когда появились первые поселения европейцев на этом континенте?
3. Каковы основные характеристики английского языка?
4. Они обсуждают вопрос о новых рабочих языках в ИКАО – арабском и китайском.
5. Когда проводилась последняя ассамблея ИКАО?
6. Кто переводил эти материалы на русский язык?
7. Какова цель этой встречи?
8. Есть какие-нибудь новые публикации по этой проблеме?
9. Они достигли большого успеха в этой области.
10. Большие усилия нужны для решения этой проблемы.
11. Необходимо хорошо владеть английским, чтобы работать в международном аэропорту.
12. Недостаточное владение экипажем английским языком привело к катастрофе.
13. Катастрофа произошла над океаном.
14. На какой высоте столкнулись самолеты?
15. В этой катастрофе была большая потеря жизней.
16. ИКАО примет новые поправки к Аннексам в следующем месяце.
17. У нас достаточно топлива, чтобы лететь в Копенгаген.
18. Мы должны владеть как радиотелефонной фразеологией, так и обычным английским.

FROM THE HISTORY OF AVIATION
Men have wanted to fly for more than two thousand years. Observations of flying birds gave man the idea of human flight. Every nation has many legends and tales about birdmen and magic carpets.
One of the most famous Greek legend is the legend of Daedalus and his son Icarus who made wings and fastened them on with wax. Daedalus landed in safety, Icarus was not so careful and he flew closer and closer to the sun. The wax melted, the wings came off and he fell into the sea.
The first scientific principles of human flight appeared in the 14-th century. The problem was studied by the great scientist Leonardo de Vinci. He observed the flight of birds, studied the air and its currents and designed a flying machine the wings of which were operated by a man.
But the first actual flight which man made was that in the balloon. In October 1783 the Montgolfier brothers in France sent two men almost 25 metres up in a balloon which descended 10 minutes later, about 2.5 kilometres away.
The first Russian aircraft designer was Alexander Mozhaisky. His airplane, a monoplane, with two light steam engines was tested on August I, 1882. With the first Russian pilot, I.N. Golubev the plane rose into the air and flew a distance of 200 metres before it landed.
At that time the same work was being conducted by Otto Lilienthal, a remarkable German inventor. In 1891 he made his flight in a glider covering 35 metres. In 1903 two Americans, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright, built their aeroplane. It flew only 32 metres but it was the first aeroplane with an internal combustion engine that was a big step forward.
In the following years aviation made big advances. In 1908 Henry Farman, in France, made a circular flight of one kilometre. A year later Bleriot crossed the English Channel. In 1913 a Russian student Lobanov invented aeroplane skis and this enabled to land and take off in winter.
In 1913 the Russian designer Igor Sikorsky built the world's first multiengined heavy aircraft. That same year the Russian pilot Nesterov executed the first loop. Another Russian pilot, Artseulov, in 1916 proved that a pilot can take his plane out of a corkscrew.
At the beginning of the 20-th century the dirigible was invented. The most known inventor of a dirigible is Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, a retired German army officer. His famous "Graf Zeppelin" in 1929 began a cruise which took 21 days 8 hours and 26 minutes to circle the world.
An outstanding event in the history of aviation took place in Petersburg in 1913. That year a heavy multiengined aeroplane "Russky Vityaz» was constructed. It weighed 4,940 kg and had a 1,440 kg useful load. On August 2, 1913 with seven passengers on board it set up a world record by remaining in the air for 1 hour 34 minutes. Its top speed was over 90 km/hr.
In 1914 an improved version of the multiengined heavy bomber of the Ilya Murometz type was built. It weighed 3,000 kg and had a 1,760 kg useful load, a maximum cruising range of 700 km and a top speed of more than 110 km/hr.
Among the pioneers of aviation are the names of aircraft designers Tupolev, Polikarpov, Sukhoi, Arkhangelsky, Ilyushin, Yakovlev and others; the pilots Vodopyanov, Doronin, Kamanin, Lyapidevsky and some others - the first Heroes of the Soviet Union who were awarded this title for saving the passengers and the crew after ice-breaker Chelyuskin had been crashed by ice. In 1937 the world applauded the daring non-stop flight by Chkalov and his crew to the USA via the North Pole on the ANT-23. In 1938 Soviet aviatrixes Grisodubova, Raskova and Osipenko made a non-stop long-distance flight to the Far East and became the first Heroes of the Soviet Union among women.
And, of course, it is necessary to mention the names of the outstanding Russian scientists who considerably contributed aviation. It is the great Russian scientist M.V.Lomonosov who developed the scientific principles of flight of bodies heavier-than-air and built the first helicopter model in the world.
The Great Russian scientist D.I.Mendeleyev is the author of man outstanding researches in aeronautics. He developed the principles of the stratostat design with a pressurized cabin.
S.A.Chaplygin, the outstanding scientist in mechanics, is one of the founders of the modern aviation theory and the pioneer in aerodynamics of high speeds.
Special services in science belong to another famous scientist who is called "father of Russian aviation". And this is N.E.Zhukovsky. He was the first to develop a scientific wing theory and the principles of airscrew design. From that time aerodynamics has been a science combining theoretical knowledge with practical experiments. All modern aerodynamical calculations are based on his outstanding theoretical works.
N.E.Zhukovsky is the founder of the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (Z.A.G.I) which became the leading centre of the aeronautics and aeronautical engineering.
The rapid development of aviation began after the World War II. But this is another story.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Was it interesting for you to read this text?
2. Did you read about the history of aviation at school?
3. When did the first scientific principles of human flight appear?
4. Who was the first to study the problem of human flight?
5. Describe the flying machine designed by Leonardo de Vinchi.
6. What was the first actual flight man made?
7. Why was it impossible to fly in a balloon?
8. Who was the first Russian aeroplane designer?
9. What plane was designed by him?
10. What distance did the plane cover?
11. Who designed the first glider?
12. What is glider?
13. What event took place in Petersburg in 1913?
14. How long did “Russky Vityaz” stay in the air?
15. Who is called “the father of Russian aviation”?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

observe – observer – observation
safe – safely – safety – unsafe
science – scientist – scientific
design – designer
fly – flight
invent – inventor – invention
construct – constructor – construction
improve – improvement
weigh – weight - weightless
develop – development

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

полет человека, поток воздуха, конструктор самолета, конструкция крыла, модель вертолета, мировой рекорд, максимальная скорость, беспосадочный полет, паровой двигатель, лыжи самолета.

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Научные принципы полета человека изучались великим ученым Леонардо де Винчи.
2. Леонардо де Винчи изучал потоки воздуха и создал первую летающую машину.
3. Первый фактический полет был сделан на воздушном шаре в 1783 г.
4. Этот полет длился только 10 минут и высота полета была 25 метров.
5. Первым русским конструктором самолета был Александр Можайский.
6. Он сконструировал моноплан с двумя паровыми двигателями в 1882 году.
7. Большим шагом вперед было создание первого самолета с двигателем внутреннего сгорания, сконструированного двумя американцами, братьями Райт.
8. Ученые и конструкторы многих стран работали над созданием и совершенствованием летательных аппаратов.
9. Первый в мире многомоторный самолет был сконструирован русским конструктором Игорем Сикорским.
10. В начале 20го столетия был изобретен дирижабль.
11. В 1913 г. в Петербурге был сконструирован тяжелый многомоторный самолет «Русский витязь».
12. Полет «Русского Витязя» продолжался 1 час 34 минуты, его скорость была 90 км/час.
13. В 1937 году русский летчик Чкалов со своим экипажем совершил беспосадочный полет в США через Северный полюс.
14. Ломоносов построил модель первого вертолета.
15. Менделеев разработал конструкцию стратостата с герметизированной кабиной.

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS
It is known that the pioneers of aviation were men of different nationalities and of many countries: Deadalus and Leonardo de Vinci, Lilienthal and Bleriot, Mozhaiski and the Wright brothers and others. So the aeroplane is a creature of no one country's knowledge and efforts. A peculiarity of air transport made it clear from the start that the development of aviation was impossible without international agreement. That's why the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was created. It happened in 1944 at a conference of 52 nations held in Chicago. At present there are about 200 member States in ICAO. Its headquarters is in Canada, Montreal. The working languages of ICAO are English, French, Spanish and Russian. Russia has been the member of ICAO since 1970 .
It is very difficult to describe all of ICAO's activities. ICAO solves many problems on the international level. ICAO has a coordination agency. One of its purposes is to gather knowledge widely scattered among nations and to standardize the equipment and operational techniques used in air navigation in and over the territories of its member-states. The main task of ICAO is the flight safety. The aims of the Organization are spelt out in Article 44 of the Chicago Convention. These are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation, to plan and develop international air transport; to encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes; to encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation, and so on.
To ensure the safe and efficient worldwide aviation operation ICAO has developed technical specifications forming the basis for uniform rules and procedures. Standardization affects the air-worthiness of aircraft, facilities and services required for aircraft operations elsewhere. These include: aerodromes, communications, navigational aids, meteorology, air traffic services, .search and rescue, information services. ICAO is doing much to make the air more clear. There are special standards to reduce noise by designing new quieter aircraft. ICAO has set up standards for air crew and controllers as well. IСAO is also doing much to prepare and train aviation specialists.
The second in its importance organization after ICAO for international civil aviation is IATA - International Air Transport Association founded in 1945. It is one of the international civil aviation organizations uniting world airlines. IATA is concentrated on the safety problem. Its main objective is to contribute to safe and regular development of civil aviation and to cooperation of world airlines. Its Technical Committee deals with the problem of safety, standardization of aviation equipment, training of flying personnel, communications, meteorology, aerodromes, navigational aids, etc. All IATA members report the data on flying, taxying and other ground incidents including maintenance deficiencies. Flight safety experts, aviation specialists and scientists of the member States investigate these accidents to prevent them in future. Russia is a member of IATA, it conforms to the IATA's standards, procedures and documents which is of great importance for studying and solving the problems which IATA deals with.
International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Association (IFATCA) was founded in 1961 with the purpose to enable the national associations to study and solve the problems for the development of air traffic control art and to create a better understanding among the controllers serving international aviation.
Eurocontrol is the European organization working for air navigation safety. It was created in 1963 for better service of European airspace. Some European countries have signed the agreement of cooperation for the safety of air navigation and organized common air traffic services in the upper airspace.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is ICAO ?
2. When and where was ICAO created ?
3. How many member States are there in ICAO ?
4. Is Russia a member State of ICAO ?
5. How long has Russia been the member of ICAO ?
6. Where is the ICAO's headquarters ?
7. What are the working languages of ICAO ?
8. What is the main task of ICAO ?
9. Where are the main aims of ICAO spelt out ?
10. How does ICAO ensure the safe and efficient aviation operation ?
11. What for are the uniform rules and procedures required ?
12. What other international Civil Aviation Organizations do you know ?
13. What is IATA ? IFATCA ? Eurocontrol ?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

different – difference – differently
difficult – difficulty
active – activity
standard – standardize – standardization
equip – equipment
facility – facilitate
efficient – efficiency – efficiently
require – requirement
reduce – reduction
control – controller
investigate – investigation – investigator
prevent – prevention – preventive

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

воздушный транспорт, безопасность полета, конструкция самолета, навигационные средства, правила воздушного движения, авиационные специалисты, проблема безопасности, информационная служба, мировые авиакомпании, воздушная навигация, полет самолета.

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Ясно, что невозможно обеспечить безопасный полет без международного сотрудничества.
2. ИКАО была создана в 1944 г. на Конференции 52 наций в Чикаго.
3. Штаб-квартира ИКАО находится в Канаде, в Монреале.
4. В настоящее время в ИКАО около 200 стран – членов ИКАО.
5. Россия не была членом ИКАО до 1970 г.
6. ИКАО решает много проблем, но главная из них - безопасность полетов.
7. Основная задача ИКАО – стандартизировать оборудование и технику, используемые в воздушной навигации над территориями ее стран – участников.
8. Существуют общие правила полета и процедуры, которые все страны – участники должны соблюдать.
9. Постоянный орган ИКАО - Совет.
10. Первым президентом ИКАО был Эдвард Вона.
11. Все авиационные проблемы выражены (даны) в 18 Приложениях к Конвенции.
12. ИКАО много делает для подготовки и тренировки авиационных специалистов, как пилотов, так и диспетчеров.
13. Имеется несколько других международных авиационных организаций гражданской авиации.
14. Члены ИАТА сообщают данные о катастрофах, которые произошли в их стране.
15. Эксперты ИАТА расследуют эти катастрофы, чтобы предотвратить их в будущем.
16. ИФАТКА помогает всем диспетчерам, обслуживающим международную авиацию, лучше понимать друг друга.
17. Евроконтроль был создан для лучшего обслуживания европейского воздушного пространства.

AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICES (AIS)

Standards and Recommended practices for Aeronautical Information Services were first adopted by the Council on 15 May 1953, and were designated as Annex 15 to the ICAO Convention. This Annex became applicable on 1 April 1954.
Each country provides aeronautical information concerning its own territory. It is published in the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) and in Notices to Airmen (NOTAM). ICAO personnel engaged in aeronautical information services do not provide actual service, but check on whether these services are provided in ICAO’s members States. NOTAM are classified into two categories, I and II. Both classes contain information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service procedure or hazard the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations.
Information generated by AIS and AIP system is directed to pilots before taking off. NOTAM information might include advice that a certain airspace will be temporarily closed because of rocket launching, for example, or that a non-directional radio navigation beacon at a particular location is inoperative.
In addition to NOTAM ICAO adopted a SNOWTAM, a special series of NOTAM informing about the presence or removal of hazardous conditions at airport due to snow, ice, slush or standing water on the aircraft movement areas of airports.
A pilot planning a flight will prepare his flight plan according to the NOTAM information. What information does a pilot need? This information is quite varied. First of all he wants to know which airway to follow to the aerodrome of his destination. Further information needed by the pilot is that about facilities available en route and at the point of destination, the length of the runways, the communication frequencies, meteorological information, etc. He fills out a flight plan giving the route he is to follow and the description of the route, the name of the aerodrome of his destination and also the name of the alternate aerodrome and other information. He must indicate whether he will fly IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) or VFR (Visual Flight Rules) or, a combination of both.
Having the information received from the pilot Air Traffic Control can control the flight.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. When did Annex 15 become applicable?
2. What is NOTAM?
3. What information does NOTAM contain?
4. Where is aeronautical information published?
5. Is AIP an international publication?
6. What is the task of ICAO aeronautical information services personnel?
7. When is the necessary information directed to pilots?
8. When does the pilot need the information?
9. What information does a pilot need to plan his flight?
10. How is a flight planned?
11. What flight rules there exist?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

apply – appliance – applicable – applicant – application
provide – provider – provision - provisional
inform – informer – information – informal – informality – informative
direct – direction – directional – directly – director
locate - location - locally – localize – local
move – movement – movable – moveless - mover
service – serviceable – unserviceable
change – changeable – changeability – changeless
present – presence – presently – presentable – presentation
control – controllable – controller – uncontrollable
vary – variable – variability – variety – variation – variant

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

стандарты и рекомендуемые практики, служба аэронавигационной информации, государства – члены ИКАО, выполнение полетов, зоны движения самолетов, частоты связи, запуск ракет, правила инструментального полета, правила визуального полета.

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Аэронавигационная информация, касающаяся территории государства – члена ИКАО, публикуется в Сборнике аэронавигационной информации.
2. Сборник аэронавигационной информации содержит информацию о аэродромах вылета и назначения.
3. НОТАМ – международный сборник аэронавигационной информации, которая имеет большое значение для планирования и производства полетов.
4. Если аэродром назначения по каким-либо причинам закрыт, пилот следует на запасной аэродром, указанный в его плане полета.
5. Знание аэронавигационной информации обеспечивает безопасность и эффективность полетов.
6. Перед планированием полета пилот должен получить всю необходимую информацию, входящую в НОТАМ.

WEATHER

Weather is composed of a number of elements such as the temperature and humidity of the air, atmospheric pressure, the speed and direction of the wind, air visibility and of special phenomena such as fog, storms and others.
Pilots need the information about weather conditions along the route of flight and at the destination aerodrome. The object of the meteorological service is to contribute to safety, efficiency and regularity of air traffic.
There exist some sources of aviation weather information: surface observation, radar observation, automatic meteorological observation, pilot reports and others.
At every airport there is a meteorological station which is equipped with special instruments recording all changes in the atmosphere. They indicate air pressure and temperature, record wind speed and direction as well as the movements of clouds. All the observations are summed up on special weather charts. The observations at the airports are made every 30 minutes and every 15 minutes if the weather suddenly gets worse or better.
Preparing for the flight the pilot is to get the latest weather information and weather forecasts along the planned route and at the point of destination and the alternates.
At a great number of met. stations situated along the airways complete weather observations are made and then transmitted to weather forecast centres by telephone, telegraph, radio and thousands of miles of teletype circuits. Thus, the pilot has a complete picture of the weather.
20-30 minutes before entering the aerodrome area the controller gives the pilot full information about the terminal weather. At many airports the information helpful for landing and take off is continuously broadcast on a navigational aid frequency. Prior to descent the pilot requests the actual weather and aerodrome conditions for the airport he is going to land.
It is considered that landing of an aircraft is probably the most difficult operation which a pilot has to perform and the standards of visibility required are higher than for any other phase of flight.
It is known that fog, rain and clouds often affect the aircraft operation. For many decades attempts were made to make flying independent of weather conditions or, in other words, to allow an aircraft to land under very low or zero visibility.
Now there exist several categories set up by ICAO:
Category I - 200 ft ceiling and 1/2 mile visibility;
Category II- 100 ft ceiling and I/4 mile visibility;
Category III - landing under zero-zero conditions.
Met. services for aviation require much work to collect data and prepare weather charts. This work is especially difficult for long-distance flights over vast areas with different climatic conditions.
Nowaday met. services for aviation are almost fully automated. Automated Surface Weather Systems are installed at the airports of many countries. The System provides for the measurements, processing and display of the following meteorological parameters: wind direction and speed, air temperature and dew point t°, runway visual range, minimum cloud height, barometric pressure.
The use of lazers makes it possible to give pilots all the necessary information when they land under low visibility conditions. The introduction of these systems has greatly increased the reliability and safety of flights.
Satellite meteorology has become an independent area of science. Weather forecasts based on information from outer space make forecasts more accurate and help to save a great sum of money annually.
At present the work of meteorologist becomes easier thanks to computers which make calculations quicker and due to them the weather forecast service is becoming more reliable. The use of satellites and computers greatly increases the accuracy of weather forecasts.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What elements are included in weather report?
2. What is the object of meteorological service?
3. How often is weather observation made at the airport?
4. What do the instruments at the meteorological stations indicate?
5. What weather information does the pilot get before the flight?
6. Do the pilots obtain weather information while in flight?
7. When does the controller give the pilot full information about the terminal weather?
8. What phase of flight does especially depend on weather conditions?
9. What weather phenomena affect the aircraft operation?
10. What categories are set up by ICAO?
11. What does Automated Surface Weather System provide?
12. When do lazers help the pilots?
13. What is the advantage of satellite meteorology?
14. What other instruments make weather forecast service more reliable?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

direct – direction
visual – visually – visibility
observe – observation – observer
equip – equipment
transmit – transmission – transmitter
regular – regularity
depend – dependence – dependent – independent
provide – provision
accurate – accurately – accuracy – inaccurate
rely – reliable – reliability – unreliable

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

сводки погоды, погодные условия, давление воздуха, скорость ветра, направление ветра, нижняя граница облачности, прогноз погоды, центр прогнозирования погоды, прогностические карты, станция обеспечения полета, погода аэродрома посадки

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Погода состоит из таких элементов как температура и влажность воздуха, атмосферное давление, скорость и направление ветра, видимость.
2. Дождь, гроза, туман, шторм и другие явления опасны для полета.
3. Перед полетом пилот идет в метеобюро, чтобы получить сводку погоды и прогноз не только по своему маршруту, но и в пункте назначения.
4. В каждом аэропорту есть метеостанция со специальными приборами, регистрирующими все изменения в атмосфере.
5. Имея все данные о погоде, синоптики составляют погодную карту.
6. Во многих аэропортах информация о погоде непрерывно транслируется на определенной частоте.
7. Посадка самолета – самая трудная операция.
8. Стандарты видимости для посадки выше, чем для любой другой фазы полета.
9. Сейчас большинство метеостанций почти полностью автоматизированы.
10. Автоматическая система погоды показывает скорость и направление ветра, температуру воздуха, точку росы, дальность видимости на полосе, высоту облачности.
11. Прогноз погоды, полученный со спутников, делает его точнее.
12. Использование спутников и компьютеров повышает точность прогноза погоды.

AIRPORT
There are airports in every country.
In theory, an aircraft can fly an infinite number of paths through the air from any surface point to any other. In practice, paths of flight lead from airport to airport. Aircraft not only need proper landing and take off facilities. Moreover, those who use aircraft need services and accommodations which the airport must provide.
In the early days of aviation when aeroplanes were small a cow pasture could be used as a "flying field". But with the continuous increase of air traffic and the introduction of high-capacity aircraft it became necessary to expand airport facilities, to build new terminal buildings and to construct new airports.
In the interest of aviation safety and air traffic assistance and control air traffic rules were established. The rules relate chiefly to weather minima, flight altitudes and traffic patterns which are to be used under different circumstances. Much can be learned about the nature of a specific airport from aeronautical charts which pilots use. For example, the chart reveals the type and size of an airport, the radio facilities it uses and its altitude and location.
The modern airport is a complex structure, a centre of most diversified services. Millions of passengers and thousands of tons of airfreight are handled by modern airports. Thousands of people are working at airports.
In practical any airport can be divided into two main parts: the landing area (runways and taxiways) and the terminal area (aprons, buildings, car parking areas, hangars, etc.). There is also a third part - terminal air traffic control. The landing area includes runways and taxiways. The number of runways, their length and location depend on the volume and character of traffic, the prevailing wind direction and other factors.
The runways and taxiways should be arranged so that to prevent delays on landing, taxying and take off operations.
Aprons are required for aircraft to make final checks prior to departure.
The main function of the terminal buildings is to handle the departing and arriving passengers and their baggage.
Among the airport services are: flight assistance service, air traffic control services - airport traffic control, approach control, air route traffic control, radio communications and weather observation and forecasting service.
At every airport there is a number of supplementary services such as rescue and security services, an airport clinic, a fire brigade, special vehicles and equipment units (water trucks, tow tractors, etc.).
Other services include maintenance, overhaul and repair of stationary and mobile equipment, the supply of electricity, water, heat and air conditioning.
The facilities include runways, air navigational aids, passenger and cargo terminals. The airport has a hotel, a post office, bank offices, restaurants, car rental firms, etc. In the terminal there is everything for quick passenger handling: check-in desks, electronic flight information board of departure and arrival times, the baggage claim carousel and many others.
Nowadays there exists one more pressing problem - that of air piracy. The number of acts of unlawful interference resulted in deaths and injures of some hundreds of persons. So the ICAO Council has adopted Amendment 8 to Annex 17 (Security). The Amendment covers security screening and inspecting passengers, checked baggage, security control over cargo, courier and express parcels and mail. Every airport has new specific detection systems capable to screen airline passengers and their baggage within less than 8 seconds.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. Why was it necessary to build new terminal buildings and construct new airports?
2. Why were air traffic rules established?
3. What do these rules relate to?
4. What does the aeronautical chart reveal?
5. What are the main two parts of the airport?
6. What is the third part of the airport?
7. What factors influence the number of runways, their length and location?
8. What does the aircraft crew do on the apron?
9. What is the main function of the terminal building?
10. What airport services do you know ?
11. What supplementary services are there at the airport?
12. What does the electronic information board indicate?
13. What equipment is used at the airport for preventing piracy?
14. How many airports are there in Petersburg?
15. What is the distance between the center of the city and Pulkovo-1?
16. How can you get to the airport?
17. Is there an airport in your native city?
18. Is it an international or domestic ?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

continue – continuation – continuous – continuously
introduce – introduction – introductory
necessary – necessity – necessitate
divide – division – divider
depend – dependent – dependence
prevent – prevention – preventive
detect – detection – detective – detector
depart – departure
arrive –arrival

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

средства посадки и взлета, правила управления воздушным движением, схема движения, радиосредства, зона посадки, преобладающее направления ветра, службы аэропорта, контроль подхода, наблюдение за погодой, служба поиска и спасания, обслуживание пассажиров, грузовой терминал.

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Почти в каждом городе есть аэропорт, большой или маленький.
2. Размер аэропорта зависит от объема перевозимых пассажиров и груза.
3. Современные аэропорты обслуживают миллионы пассажиров и перевозят огромное количество груза.
4. С увеличением воздушного транспорта и с введением новых современных самолетов старые аэропорты расширяются и реконструируются.
5. Для обеспечения безопасности полетов существуют правила воздушного движения.
6. Прибывающие и убывающие пассажиры обслуживаются в здании аэровокзала.
7. Число ВПП зависит от объема перевозок.
8. Расположение ВПП зависит от превалирующих направлениях ветра.
9. Пилот пользуется аэронавигационными картами.
10. Эти карты указывают тип и размер аэропорта, его радиосредства, длину и расположение ВПП и т.д.

AIRCRAFT

During those years which have passed since the first aeroplane was built, aviation has enjoyed phenomenal progress. At present aviation influences many aspects of social life.
In the dynamic world of today, aviation provides a rapid transportation link between different population centres. In many places the aeroplane is the only known vehicle for the large-scale movement of passengers and freight over large distances. The airplane has made it possible to patrol the forests, to fight their fires, to assess their timber resources and to plan their harvesting. It has made an enormous contribution to the photographing and mapping of the vast territories, to exploring and prospecting for mineral wealth and to studying and assessing the water resources.
As for the helicopter, besides its use for passenger transportation, this type of aircraft has proved its value in special applications where vertical take off-landing are required. Helicopters are widely used in search and rescue operations in emergency situations or when some accident occurs.
The main components of airplanes are as follows:
1. The fuselage is the main body of the airplane and contains the pilot's compartment (cockpit) and passenger and baggage compartments. The cockpit contains the flight controls and instruments.
2. The wings are the main lifting surfaces which support the aircraft in flight. Aircraft may be divided into monoplanes and biplanes.
3. The tail unit or empennage consists of a vertical stabilizer and rudder and the horizontal stabilizer and elevators to provide the necessary stability in flight.
4. The three basic flight control surfaces are the ailerons, the elevators and the rudder.
5. The power plant is the heart of the airplane. There are many types of engines: turboprop, turbojet, turbofan, rocket engines, etc.
6. The landing gear or undercarriage is used during manoeuvering of the aircraft on the ground while taxying, taking off and landing. In flight the retractable landing gear is retracted into the wing or the fuselage structure.
AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft instruments are basically devices for obtaining information about the aircraft and its environment and for presenting that information to the pilot. Their purpose is to detect, measure, record, process and analise the variables encountered in flying an aircraft. They are mainly electrical, electronic or gyroscopic. Modern aircraft have a computer on board. They are concerned with the behavior of the engines, the speed, height and attitude of the aircraft and its whereabouts. Instruments concerned with the whereabouts of an aircraft are navigation instruments.
An aircraft usually takes the name of the designer or manufacturer. Here are some of the Russian designers: Tupolev, Ilyushin, Antonov, Yakovlev. Manufacturer's names are represented by Boeing, Douglas, Lockheed and others. The name of the designer or manufacturer is followed by a type code, known in some airlines as a class. For example: Ilyushin-96 (designer's name and type code), Boeing-747 (manufacturer's name and type code).
EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What does aviation provide?
2. Where are helicopters used?
3. What types of aircraft do you know?
4. Name the main parts of the aircraft.
5. What does the fuselage contain?
6. What for are the wings required?
7. What are the components of the wing?
8. What does the tail unit provide?
9. What is the power plant?
10. What types of engines do you know?
11. When are the landing gears used?
12. What is the purpose of aircraft instruments?
13. What Russian and foreign designers do you know?
14. What name does the aircraft take?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:
transport – transportation
move – movement – movable
possible – possibility – impossible
apply - application
power – powerful
retract – retraction – retractable - unretractable
require – requirement
provide – provision
measure – measurement
contribute – contribution

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

населенный центр, минеральные и водные ресурсы, применение авиации, перевозка пассажиров, пассажирское и грузовое отделения, приборы самолета, навигационные приборы, рули управления самолетом, пилотская кабина, конструкция фюзеляжа, аварийная ситуация, поисково-спасательные операции.

IV. Переведите на английский язык:
1. Огромный прогресс сделан в авиации за последнее десятилетие.
2. Авиация применяется во многих аспектах общественной жизни.
3. Авиация обеспечивает быструю перевозку пассажиров и груза из одной точки в другую.
4. В некоторых местах авиация является единственным средством перевозки.
5. Вертолет удобное средство передвижения благодаря вертикальному взлету и посадки.
6. Фюзеляж является основной частью самолета.
7. Несущими поверхностями самолета являются крылья.
8. Крылья и хвостовое оперение состоят из подвижных частей, таких как руль высоты, руль поворота, руль направления, стабилизатор, элерон.
9. Шасси используются при рулении на земле и убираются в крыло после взлета.
10. В кабине пилота много приборов, показывающих скорость и высоту полета, работу двигателя и другую информацию.
11. Современные самолеты имеют на борту компьютер.

SAFETY

Safety is the most important problem in aviation. The prevention of collisions between aircraft in the air and on the ground is the main task of aviation specialists.
The achievement of aviation safety is the result of progress in many sciences and disciplines including engineering, aerodynamics, meteorology, psychology, medicine and economics.
Safety is ensured by thousands of ICAO and governmental regulations, by high standards in the design and manufacture of an aircraft and by rigid (strict) procedures of airline safety practices.
The aviation industry is constantly taking steps to prevent accidents but the crashes do occur time after time. They result from different causes: failure in the aircraft structure, human errors, navigational failures, malfunctioning of airborne and ground aids, hazardous weather conditions and so on.

Poor knowledge of English can also contribute to or result in an accident or incident. Therefore ICAO revised the provisions related to the use of the language for radiotelephony communications and demands good discipline to follow more closely to standard phraseology in all air-ground exchanges.
Experience has shown that phraseology alone is not sufficient to cover all of the potential situations, particularly in critical or emergency situations. That’s why proficiency in common or plain language is also of great importance.
One of ICAO’s chief activities is standardization in all spheres of aviation operations. The main ICAO document is SARPS (International Standards and Recommended Practices). Its main task is to provide the necessary level of standardization for safe and regular air operations.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is the most important problem in aviation?
2. What is the main task of aviation specialists?
3. By what means is safety ensured?
4. What factors may cause accidents?
5. What can you say about the role of language in the problem of safety?
6. Can radiotelephony alone cover all of the potential situations?
7. What is the main document ICAO?
8. What is the main task of SARPS?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

terror – terrible – terribly – terrific
danger – dangerous – dangerously
care – careful – careless – carelessness
safe – safety – unsafe
prevent – preventive – prevention
collide – collision
special – specially – specialist – speciality – specialize – specialization
achieve – achievement
ensure – insurance
govern – governor – government – governmental
regular – regularly –regulation – regularity – irregular
differ – different – differently –difference
fail – failure
navigate – navigator – navigation – navigational
hazard – hazardous
know – knowledge – unknown
provide – provision – provider
relate – relation – relative – relatively – relativity
communicate – communication – communicative – community
sufficient – sufficiently – sufficiency – insufficient
proficient – proficiently – proficiency
necessary – necessarily – necessity – unnecessary
critical – critically – criticize – criticism – uncritical
close – closely

III. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Самая важная проблема в авиации – безопасность.
2. Для обеспечения безопасности полетов ИКАО установила специальные правила и процедуры.
3. Все государства – члены ИКАО должны строго соблюдать все правила и процедуры, принятые ИКАО.
4. Одна из самых задач авиационных специалистов – предотвращать столкновение самолетов в воздухе и на земле.
5. Достижения в технике, аэродинамике и других науках повышают авиационную безопасность.
6. Еще одним условием, обеспечивающим авиационную безопасность, является стандартизация во всех авиационных операциях.
7. Всем авиационным специалистам очень важно знать английский язык.
8. Хорошее знание английского языка необходимо для обеспечение безопасности полетов.
9. Причина катастрофы - человеческая ошибка.
10. Самолет не смог вылететь из-за опасных погодных условий.
11. Отказ двигателя привел к катастрофе.
12. В районе аэропорта аварийная ситуация.
13. Одна из главных задач ИКАО – обеспечивать необходимый уровень безопасности.

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL

The ATC’s first concern is safety, that is the prevention of collision between aircraft in the air and orderly flow of traffic.
To perform their exacting duties air traffic controllers need adequate facilities. The introduction of radars greatly assists in expediting the flow of traffic reducing the separation minima. Computers are also a powerful tool. They give assistance by taking over routine tasks but they must not dominate the system. The human controller is much more efficient than any current system because it is he who takes responsibility for controlling aircraft and it is he who takes final decisions in all situations including conflicting and emergency.
During periods of heavy traffic controllers work under high stress. They may control several aircraft simultaneously, their number sometimes exceeding 15 and even more. Controllers’ slightest error may cause loss of human lives and property.
Top physical and mental condition is a vital requirement for ATC controllers. Therefore they undergo strict medical examination which are repeated at periodic intervals.
The problem of the selection and training of ATC personnel is extremely important. The controllers should possess a number of qualities which are absolutely necessary for them: a high degree of morality, a very good nervous and emotional balance, a sound critical judgment, a readiness for decisions and an instinct for team work. To become a highly professional controller one must be proficient not only in specialized aviation English but also in plain language because aviation safety depends on accurate pilot – controller communications.
The training of ATC personnel is carried out by different methods using various teaching aids, systems and simulators. Modern simulators can reproduce the whole ATC task from take-off to landing including all manoeuvers even the dangerous ones.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What is the main task of ATC activity?
2. How can controllers expedite the flow of traffic?
3. What aids and systems do controller use to control air traffic?
4. Can any aids or systems substitute a human controller? If not, then why?
5. What are the working conditions of controllers?
6. How many aircraft may controllers control at peak traffic periods?
7. What is one of the vital requirements for ATC controllers?
8. How often do they undergo medical examinations?
9. What qualities should a person possess to become a controller?
10. What can you say about the role of the English language in controller’s work?
11. How are controllers trained?
12. Can modern simulators reproduce conflicting and emergency situations?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразовательные элементы:
prevent – prevention – preventive
provide – provision – provider – provisional
order – orderly
perform – performance
exact – exactly – exactness
introduce – introduction – introductory
reduce – reduction
power – powerful – powerless
efficient – efficiently – efficiency
responsible – responsibility – response – respond
decide – decision – decisive
strict – strictly – strictness
necessary – unnecessary – necessity
depend – dependent – dependence – independent
train – trainer – trainee – training
carry – carrier – carriage
differ – different – indifferent – differently
simulate – simulator – simulation

III. Переведите на английский язык:
1. Существует много технических средств, помогающих диспетчерам в их работе.
2. Главным элементом в системе УВД является диспетчер, т.к. он принимает окончательное решение в любой ситуации.
3. Так как работа диспетчера очень ответственна необходим строгий отбор и подготовка персонала УВД.
4. Диспетчер должен иметь хорошее физическое здоровье умение принимать решение и работать в команде.
5. Различные тренировочные средства, системы и специальные тренажеры используются для подготовки персонала УВД.
6. Современные тренажеры позволяют имитировать все этапы полета, включая аварийные ситуации.
7. 15 или даже больше самолетов находятся под контролем диспетчера в период интенсивного движения.
8. Электронные средства не могут заменить диспетчера. Они могут только помогать ему.
9. Диспетчер не должен допускать ошибок, так как это может привести к потере человеческих жизней.
10. Минимумы эшелонирования будут уменьшены в ближайшем будущем.
11. Какой европейский центр подготавливает диспетчерский персонал?
12. Этот тренажер не может воспроизводить аварийные ситуации.

HUMAN FACTORS IN AVIATION

Human factors is a critical aspect of aviation safety, one that ICAO began to address more than a decade ago.
ICAO convened the first in a series of global symposia on flight safety and human factors in 1990. From the beginning, when the first event was held in a city known then as Leningrad, there was a conviction that international aviation could make enormous progress in improving safety through the application of human factors knowledge.
The first symposium was a turning point and the stage for following meetings in the United States in 1993, in New Zealand in 1996 and, finally in Chile in 1999. There have been encouraging developments since 1990, but we still have challenges to pursue: after the Leningrad symposium, human error remains a significant safety concern.
The purpose of the worldwide symposia and 10 regional seminars which were held in the past decade was to increase the awareness of States, industry and organizations in all ICAO regions about the importance of human factors. The ongoing implementation of the ICAO communication, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems concept has introduced new challenges, and also new possibilities for human factors. The reason the community must respond to is, of course, to ensure that civil aviation continues to achieve its ultimate goal: the safe and efficient transportation of passengers and goods.
The ICAO flight safety and human factors programme is safety–oriented and operationally relevant. Moreover, it is practical since it must deal with real problems in a real world. Through the programme, ICAO has provided the aviation community with the means and tools to anticipate human error and contain its negative consequences in the operational environment. Furthermore, ICAO’s efforts are aimed at the system – not the individual.
The global aviation safety plan (GASP) was developed by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission in 1997 and subsequently approved by the ICAO Council and endorsed by the ICAO Assembly. GASP was designed to coordinate and provide a common direction to the efforts of States and the aviation industry to the extent possible in safety matters. It is a tool that allows ICAO to focus resources and set priorities giving emphasis to those activities that will contribute the most to enhancing safety. Therefore the flight safety and human factors programme is among the six major activities that comprise the plan.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. When did ICAO begin to address to the aspect of human factors?
2. When and where was the first symposium on flight safety held?
3. What can improve aviation safety?
4. How many symposia on flight safety were held by ICAO?
5. What was the purpose of the symposia and seminars?
6. Where can the knowledge of human factors be applied?
7. What is the ultimate goal of civil aviation?
8. What is the ICAO flight safety and human factors programme?
9. What for was the global aviation safety plan developed?
10. Why is the flight safety and human factors programme so important?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:
safe – safety – safely – unsafe
navigate – navigation – navigator – navigable – navigability
operate – operation – operative – operator – operational - operationally
industry – industrial – industrious - industrialist – industrialization
communicate – communication – communicative – communicable – communicator
progress – progressive – progression – progressionist
improve – improvement – improvable – improver
organize - organization – organizer - disorganization
efficient – efficiency – inefficient – efficiently – inefficiency

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

знание человеческого фактора; важное дело для безопасности; идея систем связи, навигации, обзора и управления воздушным пространством и воздушным движением; программа ИКАО по безопасности полетов и человеческому фактору; план по авиационной безопасности в мировом масштабе; комиссия ИКАО по воздушной навигации; вопросы безопасности.

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Человеческий фактор является одним из важнейших аспектов авиационной безопасности.
2. В течение последнего десятилетия ИКАО провела несколько симпозиумов и семинаров, связанных с человеческим фактором в авиации.
3. Знание человеческого фактора может значительно повысить безопасность полетов.
4. Для повышения безопасности новые системы связи, навигации и обзора постоянно широко внедряются.
5. Совершенствование управления воздушным движением будет продолжаться.
6. Программа по безопасности полетов и человеческому фактору является инструментом, который позволяет предупреждать человеческие ошибки при выполнении полетов.
7. Вопросы безопасности в авиации и человеческий фактор являются самыми важными в плане авиационной безопасности в мировом масштабе.

ЧАСТЬ II

LANGUAGE PROBLEMS IN AVIATION

Nowadays many people of different tongues are using aeroplanes everywhere. And this is the language problem for an airport, airspace user and navigation personnel.
It is known that the working languages of ICAO are those of English, French, Spanish and Russian. But it is known as well that many aviation specialists in the world are very limited in the knowledge of one of these languages or even do not undergo sufficient training in English to master radio communication. This results in some problems facing both pilots and controllers, namely: accent, mispronunciation, inaccurate grammar, speed of delivery, the persistent use of non-standard radio-telephony (RT) phraseology and some others.
A prerequisite to becoming a controller or a pilot should be a high standard of spoken English. A non-native speaker monitoring another speaking English over the RT may be confused by inaccurate grammar or pronunciation.
Speed of delivery is another frequently head complaint, especially about aerodrome terminal information services (ATIS) and meteorological broadcasts to aircraft in flight (VOLMET).
It is not less important to speak without pauses and stumbles over words. The best recommendation is the rate of 100-120 words per minute.
Another difficulty is that of accent which is not easily rectified. This problem is connected with the peculiarities of pronunciation. For example, there exist peculiarities in pronunciation inherent in certain geographical regions in the South Pacific.
The ICAO RT phraseology has been designed to limit each instruction to the minimum number of words. It is for this reason that a controller does not want to waste time listening to extraneous language, particularly at busy times when the traffic flow is heavy.
It sometimes happens that the user may be able to speak the limited number of phrases quite well and may react to them correctly. But it does not mean that he is really speaking the language. He is treating it as a code without being aware of adequate meaning of the words spoken. This will do in a standard situation, but in an emergency communication is absolutely impossible. It follows that any course of teaching RT phraseology by rote without language teaching is dangerous as the student is unable to cope with emergencies.
These are several recommendations to improve the situation:
1. A high standard of English is essential as a precondition for qualification either a controller or a pilot. Proficiency is required both in speaking and comprehension.
2. In service tuition in English should be mandatory for both controllers and pilots with stress on pronunciation.
3. Radio traffic should be monitored, either regularly or from time to time by a qualified assessor.
4. English speakers should abstain non-standardized chat and especially from developing regional jargon.
5. Language training should take place in the area in which the trainee will be operating, i.e. teachers should go where the trainees will work.
6. ATISs and VOLMETs should be subject to specified word flow rates.
7. On purely logic grounds and without any nationalistic bias English should be made the primary official language for all RT communications relating to air traffic control. This would greatly enhance flight safety.

SOME WORDS ABOUT EARLY FLYING
It is known that the desire to fly is as old as humanity. Observations for flying birds gave man the idea of human flight. Every nation has many legends and tales about birdmen and magic carpets. The earliest of these legends comes from China.
One of the most famous Greek legends is the legend of Daedalus and Icarus who made wings and fastened them on with wax. Daedalus landed in safety. Icarus was not so careful as his father and he flew closer and closer to the sun. The closer he was the hotter it became. The wax melted, his wings came off and he fell into the sea.
It is clear that in those old days people knew little about nature. They could not understand much about the air and its nature and were unable to explain most of the phenomena of nature.
As time went on there came a stage when people no longer regarded flight as a supernatural phenomenon. The desire to fly was the desire to control nature. People imitated birds when they used wings. They had to fight against many prejudices because there was common belief that man could not fly.
The first scientific principles of human flight appeared in the 14th century. The great scientist Leonardo de Vinci recorded a few of them. He found that a knowledge of the air and its currents helped to understand the phenomenon of flight.
Daedalaus was a Greek; Garuda was Indian; Leonardo de Vinci Italian; Lilienthal was German; Montgolfier and Bleriot were French; Hargrake was Australian; Captain Mozhaiski was a Russian; the Wright brothers were American. They were the pioneers. Nor is this the end of this truly international story. The air captured the imagination of all. It was the efforts of men of many countries who pioneered civil aviation, who brought it to the art that we know today, and who now help its rapidly developing growth. The aeroplane is a creature of no one country's knowledge and effort. So it became clear from the very start that without international agreement the development of aviation would be greatly limited. The most successful attempt came in 1944 at a Conference of 52 nations held in Chicago, at the invitation of the United States. It was at this conference that the International Civil Aviation Organization was created.

ICAO
In November 1944 in Chicago 52 nations signed the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The 96 Articles of the Convention provide for the adoption of international standards and recommended practices. It was decided that ICAO would come into being (start working) after the Convention was ratified by 26 states. It happened on the 4-th of April in 1947. Montreal was chosen as the headquarters of the Organization.
The ICAO activities are numerous. The main task is to provide the necessary level of standardization for the safe and regular air operations. SAHRS (International Standard and Recommended practices) regulate air navigation, recommend installation of navigation facilities and suggest the reduction of customs formalities. International standards must be strictly observed by all member States. Recommended practices are desirable but not essential.
ICAO has a Sovereign body, the Assembly, and a governing body, the Council. The Assembly meets once in 3 years and reviews the work in the technical, economic and legal fields in detail.
The Council is a permanent body composed of representatives of the Contracting states. Its first President was Edward Warner.
The Council is assisted by the Air Navigation Committee, the Legal Committee, the Committee on Unlawful Interference and some others. One of the major Council duties is to adopt International Standards and Recommended Practices. It may act as an arbiter between Member States. And, in general, it may take any steps necessary to maintain the safety and regularity of air operations.
There are 18 Annexes to the Convention, they cover all aviation problems.
The Secretariat staff, headed by the Secretary General, provides the permanent organizational work. ICAO has 6 regional offices. The working languages of ICAO are English, French, Spanish and Russian.
In 1958 the Warner Awards were established by ICAO for outstanding contributions to international civil aviation.
SOME CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS
1. IATA - International Air Transport Association is the second in its importance organization after ICAO for international civil aviation. It was founded in 1945 and is uniting world airlines. The main objective of this organization is to provide safe and regular development of civil aviation and cooperation of world airlines. The IATA Technical Committee deals with the problem of safety, standardization of aviation equipment, training of flying personnel, communications, meteorology, aerodromes, navigational aids, etc.
2. International Civil Airports Association (ICAA) is the major international airports association. It is an organization permitting a constant exchange of experience, information and documentation among airports as well as contacts between airport managements. Founded in 1962 ICAA is doing much to help countries in developing both domestic and international airports providing specialists and equipment.
3. International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations (IFATCA) was founded in 1963 with the purpose to enable the national associations to study and solve the problems for the development of air traffic control art and to create a better understanding among the controllers serving the international aviation.
4. Eurocontrol is the European organization working for air navigation safety. It was created in 1963 for better service of European airspace. The increase of fast flying civil transport aircraft brought a number of difficulties and resulted in the necessity of new operating methods and use of advanced technology. Some European countries signed an agreement to organize common air traffic control in the upper airspace.

WEATHER FORECASTING
There are very many met. stations all over the country. They are of great help for aviation. There is a met. ground at every airport too, which is equipped with special instruments. These grounds have to be located not far from the landing and take off areas at a distance of about 300 m. from the end of the runway. At the airports which have no landing systems these met. stations are situated not far from the dispatch office. But if it is difficult to watch the horizontal visibility from this point, then the observations must be made from another place which is the most suitable one for observations. These met. observations are made every 30 minutes at the airports; but sometimes when the weather is dangerous for safe flights the observers give met. information every 15 minutes. All flights must be provided with met. information about the actual weather and weather forecast.
The chief pilot studies the data obtained during preflight preparation. Besides, the pilot receives met. report while in flight. 20-30 minutes before entering the aerodrome area the controller gives full information about the weather for the aerodrome to the plane. For the planes approaching for landing met. report is constantly given with the help of a tape-recorder or by a controller.
Short-flight forecasts are provided by continuous Transcribed Weather Broadcasts and the Pilot's Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service.
For longer flights a telephone call or visit to the nearest Flight Service Station or Weather Bureau Airport is necessary.
After receiving weather information either for short or long-range flights the pilot considers carefully if weather conditions are suitable for his flight. If not, it is better to delay the flight.
At many terminals information helpful to landing and take off is continuously broadcast on a navigational aid frequency. Prior to descent the pilot requests current weather for terminal area as well as field conditions at destination.

THE EFFECTS OF THE WEATHER ON AVIATION
Except perhaps for local or very short flights, a pilot, before taking off, obtains a weather forecast giving him the weather conditions which are expected along the route of his flight and at his destination. Because weather conditions affect aircraft in flight, to a considerable extent, special aviation forecasts are provided by meteorologists at weather offices all over the world.
The meteorologist, or forecaster, prepares a weather chart which shows the current weather conditions over the whole country. The current weather chart is called a synoptic chart. This synoptic chart shows the areas of low pressure, the areas of high pressure, where precipitation is falling, and all other weather conditions across the country.
From this weather map, the forecaster can inform pilots of the weather conditions they can expect to encounter during their flights. A high pressure area, for instance, usually means good weather while a low pressure area usually involves one or more fronts producing clouds and precipitation over many hundreds of miles.
A pilot needs to know the wind direction and speed. A headwind will obviously delay the arrival of flights and is to be avoided if at all possible. A tailwind on the other hand, can be of great advantage as it increases the ground speed and results in a reduction in fuel consumption. Winds vary with altitude, and also from one place to another, so information on winds is very important.
Pilots will pay particular attention to a low pressure which lies en route, and the weather conditions associated with that low pressure area. The associated cold or warm fronts could involve clouds, thunderstorm, snow, rain, and turbulence. From his charts, the meteorologist can forecast where this weather will be at a certain time in the future, and with the help of these predictions, the pilot will decide which route to fly and when and he will know what weather conditions to expect. Should the forecast be very bad, for example, dense fog or poor visibility due to snow, the pilot may decide to postpone his flight. A pilot flying VFR would also cancel his flight because of low ceiling or low overcast conditions on route.

AIR NAVIGATION
Air navigation came into existence alongside with air traffic. It had a humble beginning, but in a little more than 50 years has come today's extensive aircraft industry, a vast network of global airlines.
In the early days of flying, serious accidents often occurred because men were not thoroughly familiar with the new medium of transportation.
Today pilots are familiar with the construction of the aircraft, its controls, and its limitations. Competent instructors are available to give this information as well as to give actual flight instructions. The manuals are based not only on sound theory but also on long experience. They should be obtained and carefully studied.
The directing of aircraft from one place to another is the science of air navigation.
In fair weather and during daylight, it is usually not difficult to fly from one place to another by visual reference to landmarks noted in the charts. In bad weather and in the hours of darkness, the usual landmarks are often lost to view. Even the airport of the destination may be closed.
If air transportation is to function safely and with any degree of regularity, some aids to navigation, including instrument landing facilities, must be made available.
With the installation of instrument landing systems at principle terminals, and with other equipment such as radar and radar beacons, we may confidently expect that air transportation soon will become independent of all but the most severe weather conditions.

METHODS OF NAVIGATION
Learning to fly occupied the minds of men almost from the beginning of recorded history. Legend tells of magic carpets and winged sandals. History brings us stories of flying machines, but man’s first powered flight in a heavier-than-air machine was made in 1903.
This flight lasted for 12 seconds and covered a distance over the ground of only 120 feet. This flight was made against wind of 24 mph and was equal to a flight of 540 feet in still air. The maximum altitude attained was 12 feet above the ground.
In the old days pilots listened to the winds in the wires and were happy to fly at any speed. But now a fast flying aircraft pushes through the atmosphere so rapidly that the air can't get out fast enough, because the air is compressed and heated by the compression. At such great speeds it's not so easy as before to pilot the plane, to determine the geographical position and to maintain desired directions to navigate.
Through centuries 4 principal methods of navigation have been developed. They may be briefly described as follows:
1. Pilotage, by which the pilot is directing the aircraft with the reference to visible landmarks.
2. Dead reckoning, by which the distance and direction are determined between two known positions, or in which position is determined from the distance and direction from a known position.
3. Radio navigation , or the determination of position by means of radio bearings, distances or time intervals.
4. Celestial navigation, in which position is determined by means of sextant observations of the sun, moon, planets, or stars, with exact time of the observations.
NAVIGATOR'S ROLE
Ever since the time when people found their way by using a column of smoke by day and fire by night, navigation, navigational techniques, and navigational aids have been the subject of discussion.
What is navigation? - Navigation is the art of determining the geographical position and maintaining desired direction of an aircraft relative to the earth's surface.
A navigator belongs to the flying staff of the crew. He performs his duties by means of navigational aids and different instruments installed along the airways as well as in a plane and by making numerous calculations. That's why a navigator must know technical aids of air navigation and methods of their application during flight perfectly well. He should make navigational preparations for flight in good time. The navigator's duties performed by him during flight, are rather numerous: he must navigate the plane according to the flight plan from take off to touch down; control the progress of the aircraft by means of all established navigational methods and technical aids. He must know and observe the rules of radio communication and keep watch on airborne aids. The navigator has to get flight charts prepared personally and in advance. In addition to all duties mentioned above he must make a correct estimate of the meteorological situation.
In the course of preliminary preparation of the crew for flight the navigator together with other members of the flying staff studies the order of conducting flight on a given airway and radio aids available. Navigator's task is to determine aircraft's position, direction and speed of flight.
Usually navigators fly on heavy planes. As aircraft become larger and faster, requirements to navigator's work increase. Longer flights sends out radio waves and then measures the amount of time that it takes for the waves to return.
A radar set includes a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter sends out at regular intervals short pulses of high-frequency waves. These can penetrate clouds and darkness. They move out in a straight line. Having met some object they are reflected back to the radar set and are translated into a spot of light on the screen.
Ground radar is used to guide planes to a landing in bad weather.

CO-PILOT’S DUTIES
Co-pilot should:
1. Master piloting technique and aeronavigation to ensure safe flying.
2. Observe pre-flight rest.
3. Be able to analyze and correctly assess meteorological and aeronautical environment situation.
4. Get ready for the flight to the full extent.
5. Control the condition and readiness of the aircraft and its proper loading.
6. Know radiotelephone phraseology and the rules of communication.
7. Inform the captain about all malfunctions of aircraft systems and instruments and make suggestions of their removal.
8. Make decisions and act according to the situation if the captain cannot perform his duties due to various reasons.
9. Inspect the aircraft after landing and taxying to the stand.
Co-pilot has the right:
1. To pilot the aircraft at all stages of the flight with the captain’s permission.
2. To fulfil the captain’s instructions when the captain cannot perform his duties.
Co-pilot is responsible for:
1. Meeting the requirements of all regulation documents of Civil Aviation.
2. Discretion while taxying and in flight.
3. Timely and correct actions at the decision height together with the captain.
4. Maintaining flight parameters given by the captain.
5. Safe completion of the flight while piloting when the captain cannot fulfil his duties.
CONTROLLER’S ROLE
To talk about the air traffic controller's role is, of course, important. Controller's functions are very numerous and rather difficult. It is known that great technological achievements have been reached. But speaking about full automation in the field of aircraft operations and air traffic control one must remember that electronic devices cannot replace man. They can only be an auxiliary to the human operator. Increasing air safety is the main task of controllers. Some people see the answer to ATC problems in large radars with enormous coverage (range). This will require navigation system with air-ground data links so that position information is the same in the air and on the ground. The task of the controller then will be separating aircraft from each other and maintaining a safe and orderly flow of traffic. The role of the controller in the future is becoming that of a monitor, he will interfere only when needed. So he will be a necessary element in the air traffic control process.
RADIO NAVIGATION AIDS – VOR/DME
Navigation is the directing of aircraft from one place to another along a particular line of travel. To navigate a pilot uses radio navigation aids. There are a variety of different types of radio navigation aids. Here are some of them.
VOR (omnidirectional radio range) and DME (distance measuring equipment) are often located at the same site. They operate on VHF (very high frequency) and UHF (ultra high frequency) respectively and are not affected by static or other interferences. The maximum range of VOR is about 200 nautical miles. By flying VOR the pilot ensures he is flying directly to the station. Also by measuring radials from more than one VOR station, a pilot can check his position.
The function of DME is to measure distance. The DME measures, electronically, the time it takes for a signal, transmitted from an aircraft interrogator, to reach the ground base station transponder, and return. This elapsed time is converted to miles and appears on a digital indicator on the flight deck. The indicator actually seems to rapidly count the number of miles between the aircraft and the station giving the pilot a continuous digital reading of how far he is from or to a station.
With the many VOR/DME stations along the route, a pilot can make good his desired track; is constantly aware of his distance to or from a DME station; or, by using two VOR radials, establish his exact position.

ILS (INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM)

The ILS is designed to provide an approach path for exact alignment and descent of an aircraft on final approach to a runway.
The ground equipment consists of two highly directional transmitting systems along with three (or fewer) marker beacons. The directional transmitters are known as the localizer and glide path transmitters.
The system may be divided functionally into three parts: guidance information – localizer, glidepath Range information – marker beacons, Visual information – approach lights, touchdown and centerline lights, runway lights.
1. The localizer transmitter, operating on one of the twenty ILS channels emits signals which provide the pilot with course guidance to the runway centerline.
2. The UHF (ultra high frequency) glidepath transmitter, operating on one of the twenty ILS channels radiates the signals principally in the direction of the final approach.
3. Ordinarily, there are two marker beacons associated with an ILS; the outer marker and middle marker. However, some locations may employ a third beacon – the inner marker.
The outer marker normally indicates a position at which an aircraft at the appropriate altitude on the localizer course will intercept the ILS glide path.
The middle marker indicates a position at which an aircraft is approximately 3500 feet from the landing threshold. This will also be the position at which an aircraft on the glidepath will be at an altitude of approximately 200 feet above the elevation of the touchdown zone.
The inner marker, where installed, will indicate a point at which an aircraft is at a designated decision height on the glidepath between the middle marker and landing threshold.

RADAR
The principles of radar are not new: in fact, some early experiments were made back in 1880s. In 1904 a German engineer had invented, as he explained, a “radio-echo collision prevention device”
The word “radar” was originally derived from the descriptive phrase “Radio Detection and Ranging”.
The application of radar in the air traffic control system consists of two basic designs. The initial type of radar, called primary radar, began to be used for advanced air traffic control. When the word “radar” is used alone it usually includes both primary and secondary radar.
There are three additional forms associated with primary and secondary radar:
Radar Echo – the visual indication on display of a radar signal transmitted from an object.
Radar Response – the visual indication on display of a radar signal transmitted from an object in reply to an interrogation.
Radar Blip – the collective term meaning either echo or response.

PRIMARY RADAR
In primary radar a beam of individual pulses of energy is transmitted from the ground equipment. These pulses hit the aircraft from 16 to 34 times each scan. An aircraft in the path of this radar beam will reflect back some of the pulses which are picked up by a receiver. This reflected energy produces a bright “echo” or “target” on a cathode ray tube.

SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR (SSR)
The SSR system provides for six modes; only two modes are used in civil aviation:
Mode A for civil and military identification.
Mode C for automatic pressure altitude information.
The SSR is a valuable tool for automatically identifying aircraft. Identification is achieved by providing the controller with a specific radar beacon target identity of aircraft. A total of 4096 discrete reply codes are available for special position identification to be transmitted on request of a controller.
With SSR display, the controller sees aircraft returns on his PPI (plan position indicator) as two slashes, clearly distinguishing them from primary targets which are single blips.
In modern systems different synthetic symbols are used to indicate a lot of additional information.

VISUAL AIDS FOR NAVIGATION
Additional visual aids to navigation consist of markings on the aerodromes. These markings comprise single lines or rows of lines which, for the pilot, are very important for holding positions, runway thresholds, the runway centre lines, the sides of the runways, etc.
However, at night or during poor visibility by day, lights are required. To be effective lights must be of adequate intensity. At certain aerodromes the controller can vary the intensity of some of the lights so that they can be reduced not to blind the pilot and strong enough so that he can see them in bad weather.
The first lights a pilot sees on approach is generally the aerodrome beacon. It may rotate and can be seen at a great distance. There might be an identification beacon which shows green flashes of light. Red lights, the usual danger signal, warn pilots of the obstacles such as hangars and other high buildings, telephone poles, etc. Runway edge lights identify the runway and approach lights assist the pilot to align himself with the runway.
Lights may also be used to provide a glidepath similar to what an ILS provide electronically. The Visual Approach Slope Indicator System (VASIS) is a beam of light having a white colour in its upper part and a red colour in its lower part. A pilot of an aeroplane during an approach will:
a) when above the approach slope, see the lights to be white in colour;
b) when on the approach slope, see the lights to be pink in colour; and
c) when below the approach slope, see the lights to be red in colour.
By reference to VASIS, combined with ILS, the pilot can bring an aircraft down safely almost to touchdown by day or night.
After landing, he follows the blue taxi lights along the taxiway to the apron and the service areas.
At the service area a marshaller, with illuminated wands, directs the aircraft with signals to its proper position for unloading and, finally, signals pilot to cut the engines.

AIRPORT
There are airports in every country. In theory, an aircraft can fly an infinite number of paths through the air from any surface point to any other. In practice, paths of flights lead from airport to airport. As a rule the airport is to be situated not far from the city. If it is a long way to the airport there is special bus service to take passengers from the city Agency to the airport.
Aircraft not only need proper landing and take off facilities. Moreover, those who use aircraft need services and accommodations which the airport must provide. The modern airport is a complex structure, a centre of most diversified services. Millions of passengers and thousands of tons of air freight are handled by modern airports. Thousands of people are working at airports.
Any airport can be divided into main parts: the landing area (runways and taxiways) and the terminal area (aprons, buildings, car parking areas, hangars etc.). The number of runways, their length and location depend on the volume and character of traffic, the prevailing wind directions and other factors.
The runways and taxiways should be arranged so that to prevent delays on landing, taxying and take off operations.
Aprons are required for aircraft to make final checks prior to departure. The main function of the terminal buildings is to handle departing and arriving passengers and their baggage. In the reception halls at the check-in desks passengers register their tickets, their suitcases are weighed and labelled here too. Baggage check-in facilities utilize conveyors to move baggage without delays.
In the terminal there is an electronic flight information board to list departure and arrival times. If any delay takes place such information is also indicated on the board.
The airport has to maintain a number of supplementary services. There must be an airport clinic, fire brigade, special vehicles and equipment units (water and catering trucks, tow tractors, refuellers, etc.).
Other services include maintenance, overhaul and repair of stationary and mobile equipment, the supply of electricity, water, heat and air conditioning.
Among the airport services are: flight assistance service, air traffic control, airport traffic control, approach control, air route traffic control; radio communications and weather service observation and forecasting.
Nowadays there exists one more pressing problem – that of air piracy. Now every airport has new specific detection systems capable to screen passengers and their baggage, cargo parcels and mail.

EMERGENCY
Emergency is a serious event that needs immediate action. The type of emergency that may occur is completely unpredictable. No official documents examine the classification of emergencies. Each of them is an event on its own. It may be similar to other emergencies, but it is rare to have two which are identical in every respect. The exception to this for working radar controllers is a mid-air explosion, and although the actual cause of the explosion might well differ, its effect on the controller will be the same.
It is impossible to define instructions for all cases and write such a document as phraseology for emergencies. Nevertheless there are some standard procedures which help to prevent chaos and make controller’s work organized and regulated. Some types of emergencies have specific instructions as to the actions which the pilot and ATC controller must make.
An aircraft under emergency gets priority over other aircraft. There exist instructions concerning using special radiotelephony signals. Pilots must inform ATC by sending established signals (May Day, PAN, Securite) and the controller must impose silence.
There are certain actions which are common to a controller handling of all occurrences.
1. Don’t keep it to yourself.
2. Get help. And get it early enough to be of practical value.
3. Inform your supervisor. In most cases he will be able to do most of the liaison which will be needed.
4. Do not forget your other traffic. It may become necessary to transfer all traffic except the emergency flight to another frequency. The whole of the air traffic team on duty will be very busy to provide the best possible service to the flight in the difficulty. Emergencies are where all of the controllers training and expertise are vital.
5. Keep calm. Never let your voice portray nervousness or unease.
Sometimes the controller does not fully understand what the precise problem is. That’s why a controller (as well as a pilot) must know not only radiotelephony phraseology but also possess knowledge of the general English. Reading aviation magazines and accident reports can greatly help to understand problems which may occur.

EMERGENCY DEFINITIONS
ICAO has some definitions concerning emergency procedures.
Emergency phase. A generic term meaning, as the case may be, uncertainty phase, alert phase or distress phase.
Uncertainty phase. A situation wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants.
Alerting phase. A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft or its occupants.
Distress phase. A situation wherein there is reasonable certainty that an aircraft and its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance.
Emergency procedures.
Emergency is a serious event that needs immediate action.
Summarizing aeronautical experience a list of most common reasons for the crew to declare an emergency can be made: mid-air explosion, serious fire in the cabin or engine, oil or door warning lights, loss of an engine, bird strikes, illness on board. However, this list will never be comprehensive and complete. Thus, each emergency must be treated as an event of its own. It may be similar to other emergencies, but there hardly could be two identical in every respect. That is why it is totally impossible to define instructions for all cases and write such a document as phraseology for emergencies. Nevertheless, there are some standard procedures which help to prevent chaos and make controller's work organized and regulated.
An aircraft under emergency gets priority over other aircraft. An aircraft in distress informs ATC using radiotelephony signal MAYDAY, radiotelegraphy signal SOS. The aircraft in distress sets its transponder mode A code 7700.
An aircraft having some difficulties but which does not need immediate assistance can inform about it switching on and off its landing lights or flashing its navigation lights in a way different from the normal one.
An aircraft which has an urgent message concerning people safety, other aircraft or vehicle transmits radiotelegraphy signal XXX or radiotelephony signal PAN.
In some cases it can be difficult to determine into which of the categories a particular incident falls and in other cases it is quite clear. The English used in these events can be confusing and often does not give the information a controller needs to make a reasonable assessment of the situation. The pilot may not be proficient in the use of English outside the standard laid down phraseology. And there are no laid down phraseologies for emergencies. If in doubt as to exact nature of the problem, then ask for clarification. Never forget that one unusual situation can lead to another, and they can overlap.
Inform your supervisor. He will be able to do most of the liaison which will be needed. Do not forget your other traffic. The necessity of transferring all the rest traffic to another frequency may arise. Radio silence may be imposed on all traffic except the flight in emergency.

SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC AIRSPACE
If the pilot is unsure of the vertical or lateral position of the aircraft or the aircraft deviates from its assigned altitude or track without prior clearance, then the pilot must take action to minimize the potential for collision with aircraft on adjacent routes or flight levels.
In this situation the pilot must alert adjacent aircraft by making maximum use of aircraft lights and broadcasting position, flight level and intentions on 121.5 MHz (or 131.8 as a back up).
The pilot should advise ATC as soon as possible of a situation and if possible request an ATC clearance before deviating from assigned route of the flight or flight level.
If a revised ATC clearance cannot be obtained timely and action is required to avoid potential conflict with other aircraft, then the aircraft should fly at an altitude or on a track where other aircraft are least likely to be encountered.

ICAO’S GLOBAL AVIATION SECURITY STRATEGY
Since the events of 11 September 2001, the world aviation community has initiated a wide range of measures to increase security. New international security standards and a programme of aviation security audits were adopted by all 188 Contracting States of ICAO.
ICAO Contracting States reinforced security measures and procedures, particularly at airports.
The 33rd Session of its Assembly, which was opened after the September 2001 terrorist attack, initiated immediate action aimed at preventing, combating and eradicating future acts of terror against civil aviation. Annex 17 to the Convention on civil aviation was strengthened and many new standards adopted. In November 2001, The Council convened to consider specific proposals for inclusion in Amendment 10 to Annex 17. These proposals were unanimously agreed and the following issues were adopted in December 2001:
— Applicability of Annex 17 to domestic operations.
— Certification of screeners.
— Access control relating to air crew and airport personnel.
— In-flight security personnel and protection of the cockpit.
— Joint response to acts of unlawful interference.
— Definition of aircraft security check and security restricted area.

The Ministerial Conference, held in February 2002 reviewed and endorsed the ICAO Plan of Action for Strengthening Aviation Security, which was approved by the ICAO Council in June 2002. A major component of the Plan, aviation security audits in all ICAO Contracting States, commenced in October 2002.
The long term component of ICAO’s global aviation security strategy is focused on three critical areas. One is to assess new and emerging threats to aviation security so as to develop an ability to initiate pre-emptive action.
The second is to continually monitor and upgrade existing security process.
And the third is to expedite the clearance of passengers whilst maintaining the highest level of security.
A central element of the ICAO strategy is the Aviation Security Plan of Action which include regular, mandatory and systematic audits to enable evaluation of aviation security in all 187 Member States.

AVIATION SECURITY EQUIPMENT
Airport screening was established in the USA in January 1973. The equipment was primitive in comparison with today’s screening tools. Since then the equipment was improved and new technology was developed.
Introduced in 1972 the walk-through metal detector has become a standard screening tool at airports. This equipment has provided high quality detection but it has some disadvantages. The alarm system remains unchanged. Security agent must constantly watch and listen for an alarm to ensure detection. At busy airports there are multiple units resulting in multiple alarms and it is easy for a screener to become confused as to which unit has sounded an alarm. It is not only confusing for the operator but also noisy and confusing for passengers.
Some time later another equipment was offered by manufactures, that is a gate system. If no metal is detected the gate remains open. But if metal is detected the gate operates to divert the passenger to a secondary screening point.
The primary tool for searching hand luggage is the X-ray machine. The system operator must be well-trained to identify not only guns and knives, but improvised explosive devices. Many dangerous items cannot be identified with X-ray technology. This is because basic X-ray images only show shadows. Many dangerous items cannot be identified solely with X-ray equipment. If an operator clearly sees and identifies dangerous item the only way is to open the bags and to conduct a hand search.
Another security equipment, called Explosives Trace Detector (ETD) was installed at some airports. ETD is easier to use than any other screening equipment because all that is required of the operator is to take a sample. The equipment automatically analyzes this sample and notifies the operator when explosive item is detected.
One more equipment for screening checked baggage was installed at many airports. It is the Explosives Detection System (EDS). EDS technology is extremely effective in the detection of the presence of explosives.
The latest security systems such as Machine Readable Travel Documents and biometric identification are being introduced at many airports to prevent civil aviation from becoming a terrorist target and to provide absolute security for air passengers.

HOW AIRCRAFT FLY
The word “aircraft” means any kind of aircraft or vehicle which air can support. Airplanes, helicopters and gliders are heavier–than-air craft. They are supported by the dynamic action of the air upon their aerodynamic surfaces. Free and captive balloons and airship are supported by their own buoyancy*. They are called lighter–than–air craft. Rockets do not need air for support. They use the power of their reaction engine to propel them through space, and are called “spacecraft”.
All heavier-than-air craft use aerodynamic surfaces or airfoils to develop the necessary supporting force. These airfoils* are usually in the form of fixed or rotary wings. In order to develop the required lift, the airfoils must move through the air with sufficiently high speed. This speed is imparted to the aircraft by the thrust of its powerplant. The thrust may be developed by rotating the pulling or pushing propellers, or by throwing back masses of air by means of gas turbine engines.
To change the attitude and direction of flight aircraft use control surfaces or controls. These comprise the rudder, the elevator, and ailerons. The rudder is used to deflect the movement of the aircraft to the left or to the right. The elevator makes the aircraft climb or dive. The ailerons produce rolling movement.
The aircraft must also be able to see and hear. Aircraft sensors are those devices, such as radars, direction finders and position plotters*, communication equipment, attitude gyros, air speed indicators and others, which enable the crew to know position, orientation and speed of aircraft.

* buoyancy – аэростатическая подъемная сила
* airfoil – аэродинамическая поверхность
* position plotter – прокладчик пути

SOME WORDS ABOUT PILOT TRAINING
The professional training system must be based on the criteria of the reliable flight deck activity in piloting and operating the airborne systems.
The main criteria of basic pilot training is timely and faultless procedure execution in anticipated flight conditions and in abnormal situations.
Professional training of flight personnel faces the problem to organize the instruction process so as to provide acquisition of the necessary knowledge only and enable logical execution of a great number of procedures.
The formation of professional intellect is a complex process. The creation of professional intellect cannot be achieved as a result of observations of some phenomena without serious thinking over them. One of the pecularities of professional intellect acquisition is that the trainee should individually study the correlated functioning of aircraft systems in case of failures, the instruments readings and position of the controls.
Special-purpose simulators used at the stage of simulator training contributes to more extensive acquisition and strengthening abilities and skills both as crew members and in teamwork. The phase of so called “pre-simulator” phase starts with the study of airport systems functioning principles and specific nature of their operation in anticipated conditions and abnormal situations. The necessity of special technical aids of instruction for “pre-simulator” training is due to the existing time gap between the process of studying various airborne systems interaction in anticipated and abnormal situations and the process of developing skills required for operating these systems. In the instruction devices at the phase of “pre-simulator” training similarity is not considered to be obligatory. It is considered that instruction effectiveness to a great extent is the function of the action image which the trainee uses rather than similarity of an instruction device. Graphic displays of up-to-date universal computers are widely used in the process of basic (theoretical) training of aviation specialists.

AIR TRAFFIC SIMULATOR
The increase in air traffic has resulted in the installation of a vast number of radar control systems. Technical progress not only has improved the performance of these systems but also has made them more complex. This has required to train new controllers and to provide continuous refresher training for operational controllers.
The use of simulators provides a solution of safety and efficiency problems. The simulators can be used to train future controllers in the civil aviation educational establishments and to prepare experienced controllers.
A simulator can be used to establish new flight procedures and controls in complete safety.
Nowadays airways are continuously congested, aircraft attain higher speeds and air traffic is characterized by growing complexity. This results in a steadily increasing workload on ATC controllers. They have to be provided with highly sophisticated technical aids and must be trained so perfectly that they can cope with any traffic situation.
Therefore training should be carried out under very realistic conditions.
Simulators are the ideal solution to this problem, since they allow trainees to meet any traffic situation without interference with actual operations. They can realistically simulate the flight of aircraft over any specified area. The trainee controllers are presented with primary and secondary video outputs representing the aircraft as seen from independent radar sites. Over the radiotelephony they talk to “pilots” who have the facility change position, height and speed in accordance with instructions from a trainee or as dictated by the exercise programme.

ALFRED NOBEL — A MAN OF CONTRASTS
Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man of many contrasts. He was the son of a bankrupt, but became a millionaire; a scientist with a love of literature, an industrialist who managed to remain an idealist. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, and although cheerful in company he was often sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or family to love him; a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He invented a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. During his useful life he often felt he was useless. World-famous for his works he was never personally well known, for throughout his life he avoided publicity. "I do not see," he once said, "that I have deserved any fame and I have no taste for it," but since his death his name has brought fame and glory to others.
He was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father, Immanuel, made a strong position for himself in the engineering industry. Immanuel Nobel invented the landmine and made a lot of money from government orders for it during the Crimean War, but went bankrupt soon after. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, and Alfred rejoined them in 1863, beginning his own study of explosives in his father's laboratory. He had never been to school or university but had studied privately and by the time he was twenty was a skilful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English. Like his father, Alfred Nobel was imaginative and inventive, but he had better luck in business and showed more financial sense. He was quick to see industrial possibilities for his scientific inventions and built up over 80 companies in 20 different countries. Indeed his greatness lay in his ability to combine the qualities of an original scientist with those of a talented industrialist.
But Nobel's main concern was never with making money or even making scientific discoveries. Seldom happy, he was always searching for a meaning to life, and from his youth had taken a serious interest in literature and philosophy. Perhaps because he could not find ordinary human love — he never married — he loved whole of mankind. He was always generous to the poor.
His greatest wish was to see an end to wars and peace between nations. He spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896. His famous will, in which he left money for prizes for outstanding work in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.

AIRBUS A-380
The 555 seat, double deck Airbus A380 is the most ambitious civil aircraft program yet. When it enters service in March 2006, the A380 will be the world's largest airliner.
Airbus first began studies on a very large 500 seat airliner in the early 1990s. The European manufacturer saw developing a competitor and successor to the Boeing 747 as a strategic play to end Boeing's dominance of the very large airliner market and complete Airbus' product line-up.
Airbus began engineering development work on such an aircraft, then designated the A3XX, in .June 1994. Airbus studied numerous design configurations for the A3XX and gave serious consideration to a single deck aircraft which would have seated 12 abreast and twin vertical tails. However, Airbus settled upon a twin deck configuration, largely because of the significantly lighter structure required.
Key design aims include the ability to use existing airport infrastructure with little modifications to the airports, and direct operating costs per seat 15-20% less than those for the 747-400. With 49% more floor space and only 35% more seating than the previous largest aircraft, Airbus is ensuring wider seats and aisles for more passenger comfort. Using the most advanced technologies, the A380 is also designed to have 10-15% more range, lower fuel burn and emissions, and less noise.

The A380 would feature an advanced version of the Airbus common two crew cockpit, with pull-out keyboards, for the pilots, extensive use of composite materials such as GLARE, and four turbofan engines now under development.
Several A380 models are planned: the basic aircraft is the 555 seat A380-800 and high gross weight A380-800, with the longer range A380-800R planned. The A380-800F freighter will be able to carry a 150 tonne payload5 and is due to enter service in 2008. Future models will include the shortened, 480 seat A380-700, and the stretched, 656 seat, A380-900. (The -700, -800, and -900 designations were chosen to reflect that the A380 will enter service as a "fully developed aircraft" and that the basic models will not be soon replaced by more improved variants).
With orders and options from nine world-renowned customers (Air France, Emirates (the first customer), Federal Express, International Lease Finance Corporation, Lufthansa, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Singapore Airlines, and Virgin Atlantic), the Airbus A380 was officially launched on December 19, 2000, and production started on January 23, 2002. More airlines have placed orders since. The out of sequence A380 designation was chosen as the "8" represents the twin decks. The entry into commercial service, with Singapore Airlines, is scheduled for March 2006.
A380 final assembly will take place in Toulouse, France, with interior fitment in Hamburg, Germany. Major A380 assemblies will be transported to Toulouse by ship, barge and road.

FALCONS HELP PULKOVO STAY FREE OF BIRD STRIKES
Mid-air collisions of planes with birds often have fatal consequences. A bird hitting the engine or other important mechanism can have a serious effect on a plane’s ability to fly.
But some birds can be friends.
At St. Petersburg's Pulkovo airport those friends are the four falcons "hired" by the airport operator this summer to guard the runways from other birds.
When the falcons rise into the sky over the airport, they act as red traffic lights to all those seagulls, crows and ducks that dare to fly near the landing and take-off routes.
Every year Pulkovo airport has incidents in which planes landing or taking off ram into birds flying above the airfield," said Andrei Sokolov, head of Pulkovo's ornithology service. "Everything we tried previously to counter this produced little result."
The airplane industry estimates at least 350 people have been killed as a result of bird strikes since the dawn of aviation. The problem is growing worse because of increasing numbers of birds and planes.
The deadliest bird-plane collision was in 1960, when an Eastern Airlines jet struck a flock of starlings and crashed into Boston Harbor, killing 62 people.
In 1995, an Air Force plane crashed in Alaska, killing 24 crewmen, after geese were sucked into one of the plane's engines.
Most bird strikes occur at low altitude during the most dangerous time of any flight, the take-off or landing.
When the falcons arrived at Pulkovo from a nursery in the city of Voronezh in early July there was a noticeable difference.
The falcons don't chase birds that approach the airport; they simply frighten other birds off with their presence because all other birds are by instinct afraid of the birds of prey.
Similar falcon or hawk services operate at airports in other countries, including the U.S., Germany, Britain and Poland.
Falcons are being introduced to quite a few other Russian airports.

FARNBOROUGH AIR SHOW PROVES A SUCCESS FOR RUSSIAN COMPANIES
The Farnborough air show which was held in Britain on July 19-24.2004 proved to be an even greater success for the Russian defense industry companies than the Russian Expo Arms 2004, which was held in Nizhny Tagil a week earlier.
The largest contract of the show was a $1 billion deal signed between Sukhoi Civil Aircraft (a division of Sukhoi construction bureau) and Russia's Siberia Airlines. The deal is for a delivery of 50 Russian Regional Jet civil aircraft, which will begin in 2007. Each plane costs approximately $20 million, can seat from 60 to 95 passengers and is capable of flying up to 5,000 kilometers.
The planes are designed jointly by Russia's Sukhoi Civil Aircraft and Ilyushin Aircraft and U.S. Boeing Corporation. The aircraft will be powered by SM146 engines designed jointly by French Snecma Moteurs and Russian research and production company Saturn. Saturn and Snecma have already announced an establishment of a joint venture that will oversee the production of these engines.
Among other achievements of the fair, which showed 180 items of military equipment and aircraft from Russia, was a great interest expressed by several countries towards a unique Ka-31 radar picket helicopter. The helicopter, produced by the Kamov construction bureau, is capable of carrying out both military and civil tasks and is an economy-priced surveillance machine.

LANGUAGE AND AVIATION SAFETY
In December 1995 a Boeing 757 flew into a mountainside near Cali, Columbia, killing 160 people. The inquiry revealed that the pilots were confused about their location, a situation that resulted from their misinterpretation of the air traffic controller’s clearance to Cali. Less than one year after this accident*, in November 1996, a Boeing 747 collided with an Ilyushin Il-76 near Delhi, India, killing everyone on board aircraft. The inquiry into this accident revealed that there had been some confusion among the IL-76 flight crew, most of whom were not proficient in English, concerning the level to which the aircraft had been cleared to descend.
These two accidents illustrate how the lack of proficiency in a common language and poor comprehension of appropriate phraseology by flight crews and air traffic controllers, can contribute to or result in an accident*.
ICAO has been involved in language training for a good number of years. During the 1980s, ICAO prepared standardized training guideline entitled Aviation English for Air Traffic Controllers. A recent development in this area is ICAO’s decision to review radiotelephony phraseology. This process will involve a comprehensive review of the existing provisions for air-ground and ground-ground voice communications in international civil aviation with the ultimate goal of developing enhanced communication procedures. New provisions would address both routine and non-routine communications, standardized English language testing requirement and procedures, and minimum skill-level requirements in the use of common English.
Safety may also be at risk when the language of the documentation on board cannot be understood by the local inspection authorities. A proposal by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission to amend several annexes by introducing a requirement to translate on board documents into English was adopted by the ICAO Council early 2001.
The same requirements are just essential for air-ground radio communications. The proper use of aeronautical phraseology is an important element in reducing the risk of misunderstandings, there by enhancing flight safety. regardless of the language used. The lack of knowledge of the English language can be a burden to pilots and air traffic controllers, and continues to be a problems in international operations.
There is a need, therefore, to establish requirements enhancing the minimum performance standards for radiotelephony phraseology and use of the English language by air traffic controllers and pilots engaged in international operations.

accident – авиационное происшествие (катастрофа)
incident – предпосылка к авиационному происшествию

Коммерческое использование книги запрещено! Книга взята из открытых источников в интернете и предоставлена только для ознакомления. Если Вы являетесь автором этой книги и не желаете видеть её на нашем сайте - напишите об этом нам и мы сразу удалим её с сайта.

Беляева С.А., Паскевич Н.С., Попова Г. В. "Практикум по чтению текстов авиационной тематики" скачать, читать бесплатно
Copyright © 2005-2017. Публикация материалов сайта на других проектах и в СМИ запрещено! Нарушители будут преследоваться по закону! Для связи homeenglish@mail.ru